Resources 3: Victims The Wolf Ticket  a novel by Caro Clarke

(This page covers the Holocaust, refugees and displaced persons, repatriation, and other resources. For the history of the war, the resistance, and the aftermath of the war, see first resources page. For women in the war, the Women's Army Corps, and gays and lesbians in the war, see previous resources page.)

Oppression of the European Jews and Other People
The oppression of the Jews began long before the beginning of the war. There are hundreds of books covering both the pre-war years and the war itself. I can recommend Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany by Marion A. Kaplan. For an answer to the Western guilt over this period, read The Myth of Rescue: Why the Democracies Could Not Have saved More Jews from the Nazis by William Rubenstein. American Refugee Policy and European Jewry, 1933-1945 by Richard Breitman and Alan M. Kraut gives a slightly different picture. Yet another picture is found in Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust 1941-1945 by David S. Wyman and Elie Wiesel. Books and sites concerning he Nazi treatment of the Poles and others are listed in "Domination and Resistance" on page one of "More Resources". Further titles are War Through Children's Eyes: The Soviet Occupation of Poland and the Deportations, 1939-1941 by Irena Grudzenka-Gross and Jan T. Gross, The Other Victims: First-Person Stories of Non-Jews Persecuted by the Nazis by Ina R. Friedman (for young adults, but a good summary), Weeping Violins: The Gypsy Tragedy in Europe by Betty Alt and Silvia Folts, and Hitler's Foreign Workers: Enforced Labor in Germany Under the Third Reich by Ulrich Herbert (translated by William Templer). Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Roma (also known as Gypsies), and Others in Germany, 1933-1945 by Benno Muller-Hill covers the so-called eugenic approach the Germans took to justify their treatment of the the Roma and Sinti (Gypsies). And Wikipedia covers the Nazi treatment of gay men and lesbians. Hostage to War: A True Story by Tatjana Wassiljewa tells of one Russian woman's experience in forced labour camps and slave-labour factories. The Pink Triangle: The Nazi War Against Homosexuals by Richard Plant and Men of the Pink Triangle: The True Life-and-Death Story of Homosexuals in the Nazi Death Camps by Heinz Heger et al. concentrate on the fate of gay men in Nazi Germany. Liberation was for Others: Memoirs of a Gay Survivor of the Nazi Holocaust by Pierre Seel (translated by Joachim Neugroschel) shows how gay men continued to suffer after the war, both in society and within themselves. There are few resources dealing with the fate of lesbians under the Nazis. This is largely due to the fact that they were classed generally with 'anti-socials' to obliterate the fact of their actual existence, which effectively obliterates them from history. Days of Masquerade: Life Stories of Lesbians during the Third Reich by Claudia Schoppman (translated by Allison Brown) and The Hidden Holocaust: Gay and Lesbian Persecution in Germany 1933-45 edited by Gunter Grau and Claudia Schoppmann are the only books I am aware of that deal with the Nazi treatment of lesbians.

The Holocaust
The world is fortunate that so many survivors of Hitler's final solution have told their stories. For those who cannot or will not believe these horrors happened, the thousands of personal histories testify to the reality. The most terrible and moving account I have ever read is Night by Elie Wiesel. Others are The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe during the Second World War by Martin Gilbert and A Holocaust Reader by Lucy S. Dawidowicz. The book of photographs In the Camps, taken by Erich Hartmann, shows what the world saw when the Allies liberated the concentration camps. Sites include the Brief Introduction to the Holocaust, Holocaust Internet Sites, a collection of good links, and this on Non Jewish Victims. Studies of the Holocaust from the German point of view are becoming more numerous. The best known, and most controversial, is Hitler's Willing Executioners by Daniel Jonah Goldhagen. Less controversial, because its research is incontestable, is Ordinary Men: Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland by Christopher R. Browning. Nazi Mass Murder: A Documentary History of the Use of Poison Gas by Eugene Kogon et al. shows how the Germans organised the executions of their victims; there is nothing like a technical diagram of ovens to silence any talk of the 'myth' of the Holocaust.

Refugees and Displaced Persons
DPs; Europe's Displaced Persons, 1945-1951 by Mark Wyman covers the post-war problem of refugees. America and the Survivors of the Holocaust: The Evolution of a United States Displaced Persons Policy 1945-1950 by Leonard Dinnerstein is the best history of this period from the United States' point of view, while America's Fair Share: The Admission and Resettlement of Displaced Persons, 1945-1952 by Haim Genizi emphasises the activities of Christian groups. Healing the Wounds is Alex Bryan's memoir of his work in the Friends Relief Service working with refugees and the defeated Germans. A book I wish had been published when I was writing "The Wolf Ticket" is The Long Road Home: The Aftermath of the Second World War" by Ben Shephard. It looks at the 'displaced persons' problem up to about 1948 and the attempts, well-meaning but often bungled, of UNNRA to deal withe them, from extermination camp survivors to slave labourers. Another book I would have found useful, and did find fascinating in 2007, is Endgame, 1945: The Missing Final Chapter of World War II by David Stafford, which looks at the final weeks of the wat and then looks at the post-war plight of PoWs, for those seeking revenge, and for displaced persons. It covers the time of my novel and goes further.

Forced repatriation has not been written about extensively. One good history is Aftermath of War: Everyone Must Go Home by Carol Mathur. Another is Victims of Yalta by Nikolai Tolstoy, which is the book that shaped my understanding of this shameful period. Other books include Pawns of Yalta: Soviet Refugees and America's Role in Their Repatriation by Mark Elliott, The Last Secret: The Delivery to Stalin of Over two Million Russians by Britain and the United States by Nicholas Bethell, and The Last Secret: Forcible Repatriation to Russia, 1944-7 by the same author. If you want to know more about why the Cossacks fought with the Nazis against the Soviets, read Cossacks in the German Army, 1941-1945 by Samuel J. Newland or read this short explanation on why the Cossacks were fighting in the German army and what happened to them. For a study of their war record and the record of their treatment by the Allies, read The Secret Betrayal by Nikolai Tolstoy, if you can find it. A successful libel action against him in the UK by a former official of the British Government resulted in the book being pulled and pulped. Absolutely disgraceful: how can the truth be a libel? My own copy was a lucky second-hand find. Operation Keelhaul: the Story of Forced Repatriation from 1944 to the Present by Julius Epstein brings the story up to date, and shows that we have not yet learned not to become oppressors.

Other Important Resources
There are many aspects of the war that I could touch upon only in passing in The Wolf Ticket. These include the experiences of African Americans as soldiers. The Afro-American and the Second World War by Neil Wynn gives a useful overview. The Invisible Soldier: The Experiences of the Black Soldier, World War II by Mary Motley show the endurance of men enduring both war and racism. What They Didn't Teach You About World War II by Mike Wright covers the experiences of African Americans, women and Native Americans. I wish Roi Ottley's edited diary Roi Ottley's World War II: The Lost Diary of an African American Journalist edited by Mark A. Huddle (University Press of Kanasas, 2011) had been available to me; my African American reporter character was inspired by journalists working ofr a number of newspapers aimed at the African American market. Books I did use while researching The Wolf Ticket include Paris was Yesterday, 1925-1939 by Janet Flanner, Paris was a Woman by Andrea Weiss (which began life as a film). I got my music correct by reading After the Ball by Ian Whitcomb and A History of Popular Music in America by Sigmund Spaeth. I also listened to a great deal of big band music with great pleasure. Those who want to learn more about these should read The Big Bands Go to War by Chris Way. Lastly, The War Brides of World War II by Elfrieda Berthiaume Shukert and Barbara Smith Scibetta gives the memories of women who went to the United States as brides of American soldiers.

For other resources dealing with the background of The Wolf Ticket, see previous page.

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